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This form of therapy involves examining the growth and movement of the mind, through considering how past relationships particularly those early in life, have informed how we relate with others in the present. The counselling setting and the relationship with the therapist will help unconscious dynamics to be gently explored, with the aim of highlighting and re-working internal conflicts and maladaptive functioning. Psychodynamic therapy is held usually once or twice per week, and has grown out of the Psychoanalytic model.

The above aspects of Psychodynamic therapy also apply here. The intensity of relationship between client and therapist could define the key difference between the two approaches. With this form of therapy it is not uncommon to hold therapy sessions 3 times per week, and the use of a couch for ‘Free Association’ may be offered. Despite the frequency of sessions, the Psychoanalytic approach is often felt to be unhurried, which is recommended for some individuals. Sigmund Freud is known as the ‘grandfather’ of Psychoanalysis, who from the 1890’s produced ground-breaking theory about the development and workings of the human mind.

Cognitive refers to our thinking; so CBT is a form of therapy that seeks to highlight unhelpful patterns of thinking and behaviour. We are all creatures of habit, and may not have consciously updated old beliefs about ourselves, and the world around us.  These beliefs influence the way we think, often negatively impacting on the way we react (or behave) in certain situations, which in turn may reinforce our irrational self-beliefs. A self-realising cycle that CBT can help to address.

Mindfulness is a concept that has developed out of the Buddhist tradition of meditation, and is increasingly used in many forms of therapy. It involves paying attention to, or just taking note of oneself in the here and now, one’s thoughts and behaviours without judgement. With guidance and practice, we effectively learn to ‘step outside’ of unhelpful ways of being - often reducing anxiety, worry, stress and depression.